Physics High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

In general, **comets** are often discovered by amateur or professional astronomers using telescopes or other observation equipment. The type of telescope used can vary depending on the observer's preference and the specific requirements of the observation.

When a comet is first discovered, **astronomers** typically describe its position, brightness, and any visible features such as a tail or coma. They may also use spectroscopy to analyze the composition of the comet's gases and dust.

Astronomers may have various expectations about what they might see when a comet impacts a planet or other object. Prior to the impacts, some astronomers may have predicted a large explosion or other **dramatic effects**. However, the actual outcome can be difficult to predict and may depend on many factors such as the comet's size, speed, and angle of impact.

As for lessons for us on Earth, the study of comets can help us understand the history and evolution of our **solar system**. It can also provide insights into the formation of planets and the origins of life on Earth. Additionally, the study of impacts can help us prepare for potential hazards such as asteroid or comet impacts on Earth.

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## Related Questions

is the NW section of the Earth experiencing day OR night and winter OR summer in Position 1?

photo is attached below

options:

- day,winter

-night,winter

-day,summer

-night,summer

pls help

### Answers

The the** NW section **of the Earth is experiencing night and winter in Position 1.

Option 3 is correct.

What determines when a location experiences day or night?

Day and night are due to the** Earth rotating **on its axis, not its orbiting around the sun.

The term 'one day' is determined by the time the Earth takes to rotate once on its axis and includes both day time and night time. We can predict that the **NW section **of the Earth is experiencing night and winter in Position 1.

The **earth revolves** around the sun in an elliptical orbit that takes about 365 1/4 days to finish as it spins on its axis, creating day and night.

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What is the idea of manifest destiny, and how might it apply to space exploration?

### Answers

The idea of manifest destiny refers to the 19th-century belief that it was the inevitable and divinely ordained destiny of the United States to expand its territory across** North America**.

This concept was used to justify the westward expansion of the nation and the acquisition of new territories**.**

Applying the idea of manifest destiny to space exploration suggests that it might be humanity's destiny to expand our presence beyond Earth and explore the universe.

In this context, manifest destiny would involve colonizing other planets, moons, and celestial bodies, ultimately extending **human influence** throughout the cosmos.

In space exploration, manifest destiny could be seen as a driving force behind the desire to discover new worlds, resources, and potential habitats for** **humanity**. **

This might involve missions to Mars, the Moon, or even more distant celestial bodies.

The concept could also promote international collaboration in space exploration, as humanity's collective destiny could be at stake.

To summarize, the idea of manifest destiny is the belief that a nation or people are destined to **expand and conquer **new territories. In the context of space exploration,

This concept could inspire the pursuit of discovering and colonizing new celestial bodies, ultimately extending humanity's reach throughout the universe**.**

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Use the internet or consult your senior in your locality to search for the scope of different branches of science.based on your findings prepare a presentation or report on the scope of science

### Answers

There are many different branches of science, each with its own unique scope and focus. Some of the major branches of science include:

1. Physics: The study of matter and energy, and the interactions between them. This includes the study of mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics.

2. Chemistry: The study of matter and its properties, including the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of substances. This includes organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical chemistry.

3. Biology: The study of living organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment. This includes the study of genetics, evolution, ecology, and biochemistry.

4. Earth Science: The study of the physical and chemical properties of the Earth, including geology, meteorology, and oceanography.

5. Astronomy: The study of the universe and its contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and other celestial bodies.

6. Computer Science: The study of computation and information processing, including software engineering, artificial intelligence, and computer graphics.

The scope of each branch of science is vast and constantly evolving with new discoveries and advancements. The study of science can lead to a wide range of careers, including research and development, healthcare, engineering, and education, among others. Science also plays an important role in addressing global challenges such as climate change, disease prevention, and sustainable development. Overall, the scope of science is vast and diverse, and offers many opportunities for learning, discovery, and innovation.

one person pulls on a rope with a force of 400 n to the right. another person pulls on the opposite end with a force of 600 n to the left. what is the unbalanced net force?

### Answers

The unbalanced net force** **acting on the rope is **200 N to the left**. This means that the rope will move in the direction of the net force, which is to the left.

The unbalanced** net force** is the overall force acting on the object after considering all the forces acting on it.

In this case, one person is pulling on a rope with a force of 400 N to the right and the other person is pulling on the opposite end with a force of 600 N to the left.

To determine the net force, we need to subtract the force acting in the opposite direction from the force acting in the **forward direction**.

Since the forces are in opposite directions, we need to subtract the smaller force from the larger force:

Net force = 600 N - 400 N = 200 N to the left

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For the next three questions: A bungee jumper of mass m stands on a platform of height h over a canyon attached to a bungee cord with un-stretched length L and spring constant k.19) Determine the energies and use energy bar charts to illustrate them at the positions a, b, and c (see the figure), as the jumper goes through from the time he starts to jump until the time he stops (at the end of the stretched bungee cord). 20) Determine the energy transfers from position a to b and b to c. 21) Write the energy conservation equation from the start of the jump to the stopping point, which will allow you to find the stretched length AL of the bungee cord. 22) Solve the equation for the stretched length (no numbers, just the variables).

### Answers

A bungee jumper is a person who jumps off a platform or a tall structure while attached to a bungee cord. The un-stretched length of the bungee cord refers to its length when it is not stretched or extended. Energy transfers refer to the transfer of energy from one form to another, such as from **potential energy** to kinetic energy or vice versa.

19) When the bungee jumper starts to jump, he has potential energy due to his position above the ground. As he jumps, this potential energy is converted into kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion. At position a, the jumper has all potential energy and no kinetic energy. At position b, he has some potential energy and some kinetic energy. At position c, he has no potential energy and all kinetic energy. The energy bar charts would show the amount of potential and kinetic energy at each position.

20) The** energy transfer **from position a to b is the transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy. The energy transfer from position b to c is the transfer of kinetic energy back to potential energy as the bungee cord stretches and slows the jumper down.

21) The energy conservation equation is: Potential energy at start = Kinetic energy at stopping point + Potential energy stored in the stretched bungee cord. This equation takes into account that the potential energy is converted into **kinetic energy** during the jump, and then back into potential energy as the bungee cord stretches and slows the jumper down.

22) Solving for the **stretched length** AL of the bungee cord would involve using the equation for the potential energy of the bungee cord, which is given by: Potential energy = (1/2)k(AL-L)^2. We would need to use the energy conservation equation to find the total potential energy at the stopping point and then equate it to the potential energy of the bungee cord. We would then solve for AL, the stretched length of the bungee cord.

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Based on the text how might the surfing "purists" feel about the movement toward incorporating aerial moves into surfing competitions? Use evidence from the text to support your answer

### Answers

Surfing purists dislike aerial moves in competitions, preferring traditional **surfing**. There is controversy over the emphasis on aerial moves, and diversity of opinion within the community.

The surfing "purists" are likely to be critical of the movement towards incorporating aerial moves into surfing **competitions**, as they are described as valuing "traditional" or "classic" surfing.

The text notes that these purists "feel that aerial moves represent a departure from classic **surfing**," and quotes a professional surfer who suggests that "real surfing is all about turns and the flow of the wave."

The article also notes that there is some controversy within the surfing community over the emphasis on **aerial **moves, with some feeling that it has become too dominant in competitions. This further suggests that there are those within the community who are resistant to this trend.

Overall, it seems that the surfing "**purists**" value a more traditional, flowing style of surfing and may view aerial moves as a departure from this style.

However, it is important to note that there is diversity of opinion within the surfing community, and not all surfers or fans may share this view.

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an inductor must be selected for a circuit that will exactly match the reactance of a 711.3 nf capacitor in a 120 v, 58.0 hz source. determine the required inductance. g

### Answers

If an **inductor** must be selected for a circuit that will exactly match the reactance of a 711.3 nf capacitor in a 120 v, 58.0 hz source, the required inductance for the **circuit** is 65.0 millihenries.

To determine the required inductance for a circuit that matches the reactance of a 711.3 nf **capacitor** in a 120 V, 58.0 Hz source, we need to use the formula for calculating reactance.

**Reactance** is the opposition that an inductor or capacitor offers to alternating current, and it is measured in ohms. The reactance of an inductor is given by the formula X₁ = 2πfL, where X₁ is the inductive reactance in ohms, f is the frequency in Hertz, and L is the inductance in Henrys.

The reactance of a capacitor is given by the formula X₂ = 1/(2πfC), where X₂ is the capacitive reactance in ohms, f is the **frequency** in Hertz, and C is the capacitance in farads.

To match the **reactance** of the capacitor, we need to calculate the inductance required to cancel out the capacitive reactance. Therefore, we need to set X₁ equal to X₂ and solve for L.

X₁ = X₂

2πfL = 1/(2πfC)

L = 1/(4π^2f^2C)

**Substituting** the given values, we get:

L = 1/(4π^2(58.0 Hz)^2(711.3 nF))

L = 65.0 mH

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according to the laws of thermal radiation, hotter objects emit photons with group of answer choices a lower average energy. a lower average frequency. a shorter average wavelength. a higher average speed.

### Answers

This **phenomenon**, often referred to as blackbody radiation, is crucial to many disciplines, including astronomy, where it is used to investigate the temperature and make-up of stars.

According to the laws of thermal radiation, hotter **objects** emit photons with a shorter average wavelength. This is because the energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency, and inversely proportional to its wavelength. As the temperature of an object **increases**, the average energy of its emitted photons also increases.

This means that the average frequency of emitted photons is higher, which corresponds to a shorter average wavelength. This effect can be observed in everyday life, such as when a hot piece of metal glows red or even white-hot.

At these high **temperatures**, the emitted photons have very short wavelengths in the visible range, which gives the object its characteristic color. This phenomenon is known as blackbody radiation, and it plays an important role in many fields, including astronomy, where it is used to study the temperature and **composition** of stars.

This phenomenon, often referred to as blackbody radiation, is crucial to many disciplines, including astronomy, where it is used to investigate the temperature and make-up of stars.

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You look up and see a helicopter pass directly overhead. 3. 10s later you hear the

sound of the engine. If the air temperature is 23. 0°C, how high was the helicopter

flying?

### Answers

The helicopter was flying at an approximate **height** of 1070.13 meters.

To determine the height at which the helicopter was flying, we can use the **speed of sound** and the time delay between seeing the helicopter and hearing the sound.

The speed of sound in air depends on the **temperature** of the air. The relationship between the speed of sound (v) and the air temperature (T) can be approximated by the equation:

v = 331.5 m/s + 0.6 m/s/°C * T

Given:

Time delay between seeing the helicopter and hearing the sound = 3.10 s

Air temperature = 23.0°C

First, let's calculate the speed of sound at the given air temperature:

v = 331.5 m/s + 0.6 m/s/°C * T

v = 331.5 m/s + 0.6 m/s/°C * 23.0°C

v ≈ 331.5 m/s + 13.8 m/s

v ≈ 345.3 m/s

Next, we can calculate the distance traveled by the sound in the time delay:

Distance = Speed × Time

Distance = 345.3 m/s × 3.10 s

Distance ≈ 1070.13 m

Since the sound traveled from the helicopter to your location, the distance is equal to the height at which the helicopter was flying.

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What is the relationship between the value of the coefficient of friction and the mass of an object for the inclined plane experiment? to what extend does the result confirm this?

### Answers

The coefficient of friction and **mass **of an object both affect its acceleration on an inclined plane, and there is a relationship between the two as seen in the net force equation.

The coefficient of friction is a measure of the amount of friction between two surfaces in contact. For an inclined plane experiment, the coefficient of friction between the surface of the plane and the object sliding down it will affect the **acceleration **of the object. Specifically, a higher coefficient of friction will lead to a lower acceleration.

The mass of the object also affects its acceleration on the inclined plane. A heavier object will have a greater **gravitational **force acting on it, which will result in a greater acceleration down the plane.

The relationship between the coefficient of friction and the mass of an object can be seen in the equation for the net force on the object:

[tex]Fnet = mgsin(\theta) - \mu\;mgcos(\theta),[/tex]

where μ is the coefficient of friction, m is the mass of the object, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and θ is the angle of the inclined plane.

To confirm this relationship, experiments can be conducted with different masses and coefficients of **friction**, and the resulting accelerations can be measured. The data can then be analyzed to see if there is a correlation between the mass and coefficient of friction and the resulting acceleration.

In summary, the coefficient of friction and **mass **of an object both affect its acceleration on an inclined plane, and there is a relationship between the two as seen in the net force equation. Experiments can be conducted to confirm this relationship.

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The figure shows a 25-cm-long metal rod pulled along two frictionless, conducting rails at a constant speed of 3. 5 m/s. The rails have negligible resistance, but the rod has a resistance of 0. 65 Ω

### Answers

The magnitude** **of the **force **required to keep the rod moving at a constant speed is 0.9065 N.

First, let's find the induced **electromotive **force (EMF) using Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction: EMF = B * L * v, where L is the length of the rod, and v is its velocity. Converting the length to meters: L = 0.25 m.

EMF = 1.4 T * 0.25 m * 3.7 m/s = 1.295 V

Next, let's find the induced current using **Ohm's **law: I = EMF / R, where R is the resistance of the rod.

I = 1.295 V / 0.50 Ω = 2.59 A

The current induced in the rod is 2.59 A.

Now, let's calculate the magnitude of the force required to keep the rod moving at a constant **speed**. The force needed to maintain constant speed is equal to the magnetic force acting on the rod, which is given by F = I * L * B.

F = 2.59 A * 0.25 m * 1.4 T = 0.9065 N

The magnitude of the **force **required to keep the rod moving at a constant speed is 0.9065 N.

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Complete question:

The figure shows a 25 cm -long metal rod pulled along two frictionless, conducting rails at a constant speed of 3.7 m/s . The rails have negligible resistance, but the rod has a resistance of 0.50 Ω .

B=1.4T

What is the current induced in the rod?

What is the magnitude of the force is required to keep the rod moving at a constant speed?

You put a force of 550

n in an area of 9 cm² on the tops of my feet! the pressure on

my feet was 611111 pa. what is the ratio of this pressure to

atmospheric pressure?

### Answers

The ratio of the pressure on your feet to **atmospheric pressure** is 6.03. To calculate the ratio of the pressure on your feet to atmospheric pressure, we need to first determine the atmospheric pressure at the time of the force being applied. The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is approximately 101,325 Pa. However, **atmospheric pressure **can vary based on factors such as altitude and weather conditions. For the purpose of this calculation, we will assume the atmospheric pressure is at the standard value of 101,325 Pa.

Now, let's use the given information to calculate the ratio of the pressure on your feet to **atmospheric pressure**. We know that the force applied was 550 N and the area on which it was applied was 9 cm². To convert this area to m², we need to divide by 10,000, which gives us 0.0009 m².

Using the formula **pressure = force/area**, we can calculate the pressure on your feet to be:

pressure = 550 N / 0.0009 m² = 611,111 Pa

Now, to calculate the ratio of this pressure to **atmospheric pressure**, we simply divide the pressure on your feet by atmospheric pressure:

ratio = 611,111 Pa / 101,325 Pa = 6.03

Therefore, the ratio of the pressure on your feet to atmospheric pressure is 6.03. This means that the pressure on your feet was over 6 times greater than the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. This level of pressure can be quite significant and may cause discomfort or even injury if sustained for an extended period. It is important to ensure that any activities that involve applying pressure to the feet are performed safely and with appropriate support.

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Calculate the intensity transmission coefficient TI and reflection coefficient RI for the following interfaces: muscle/kidney, air/ muscle, bone/ muscle. assuming that the ultrasound incidence beam makes angle of 30 degree

### Answers

The **intensity transmission coefficient** TI and reflection coefficient RI for the following interfaces: muscle/kidney, air/ muscle, and bone/ muscle. assuming that the ultrasound incidence beam makes an angle of 30 degree, θ' = 9.9 degrees, TI = 0.00061, RI = 0.99939.

To calculate the intensity transmission coefficient (TI) and reflection coefficient (RI) for each interface, we need to use the following equations:

TI = (2Z1cosθ)/(Z1cosθ + Z2cosθ')

RI = (Z2cosθ - Z1cosθ')/(Z2cosθ + Z1cosθ')

where Z1 and Z2 are the acoustic impedance of the two materials at the interface, θ is the angle of incidence (which is given as 30 degrees in this case), and θ' is the angle of transmission.

We can find the acoustic impedance for each material using the equation:

Z = ρc

where ρ is the density of the material and c is the speed of sound in that material. The values for ρ and c are typically given in tables or can be looked up online.

Using these equations, we can calculate the TI and RI for each interface:

**Muscle/kidney** interface:

- Z1 (muscle) = 1.64 x 10^6 kg/m²s

- Z2 (kidney) = 1.48 x 10^6 kg/m²s

- θ = 30 degrees

Using the equations above, we can find:

- θ' = 19.6 degrees

- TI = 0.71

- RI = 0.29

**Air/muscle interface**:

- Z1 (air) = 4 x 10^2 kg/m^2s

- Z2 (muscle) = 1.64 x 10^6 kg/m^2s

- θ = 30 degrees

Using the equations above, we can find:

- θ' = 1.9 degrees

- TI = 0.99999

- RI = 0.00001

**Bone/muscle interface**:

- Z1 (bone) = 7.8 x 10^6 kg/m^2s

- Z2 (muscle) = 1.64 x 10^6 kg/m^2s

- θ = 30 degrees

Using the equations above, we can find:

- θ' = 9.9 degrees

- TI = 0.00061

- RI = 0.99939

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Two identical insulated metal spheres are equally charged and separated by a distance of 0. 1 m. The resulting force between the spheres is 8. 1 x 10^-8N. What is the force if the size of each change is tripled? Show your calculation.

### Answers

Two charged metal spheres are separated by 0.1m and have a **force **of [tex]8.1 \times 10^{-8}N[/tex] between them. If the size of the charges is tripled, the force between them will increase to [tex]7.29 \times 10^{-7}N[/tex].

The force between two charged spheres is given by **Coulomb's Law**, which states that the force is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Therefore, if the size of each charge is tripled, the force between the spheres will increase by a factor of 9, since the product of the charges is now three times greater.

To calculate the **force**, we can use the formula [tex]F = kQ1Q2/d^2[/tex], where k is the Coulomb constant, Q1 and Q2 are the charges on the spheres, and d is the distance between them. Since the spheres are identical and equally charged, we can represent their charges as Q and Q, respectively.

Substituting the given values, we get:

[tex]8.1 \times 10^{-8} = kQ^2/0.1^2[/tex]

Solving for Q, we get:

Q = [tex]\sqrt{(8.1 \times 10^{-8} \times 0.1^2 / k)}[/tex]

Q = [tex]3 x 10^{-8} C[/tex]

Now, if we triple the size of each charge, the force between the **spheres **will be:

F' = [tex]k(3Q)^2/0.1^2[/tex]

F' = [tex]9kQ^2/d^2[/tex]

F' = [tex]9(8.1 \times 10^{-8})[/tex]

F' = [tex]7.29 \times 10^{-7} N[/tex]

Therefore, the force between the spheres will increase from [tex]8.1 \times 10^{-8}N[/tex] to [tex]7.29 \times 10^{-7}N[/tex] if the size of each charge is tripled.

In summary, the force between two charged spheres is proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the **distance **between them. If the size of each charge is tripled, the force between the spheres will increase by a factor of 9.

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What's the mass and weight of each of object if there were placed on mass gmars=3. 8n/kg

### Answers

The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter in the object, while weight is the force exerted on an object due to gravity: the mass of an object will remain the same regardless of its location in the universe, while its weight will vary depending on the **gravitational force** at that location.

Assuming that the question is referring to the planet Mars, where the gravitational force is approximately 3.8 N/kg, we can calculate the weight of each object based on their **mass**. For example, if we have an object with a mass of 1 kg, its weight on Mars would be:

**Weight **= Mass x Gravity

Weight = 1 kg x 3.8 N/kg

Weight = 3.8 N

Therefore, the weight of a 1 kg object on Mars would be 3.8 N. Using the same formula, we can calculate the **weight **of other objects placed on Mars based on their respective masses.

In conclusion, if an object is placed on **Mars**, its weight will vary depending on the planet's gravitational force, which is approximately 3.8 N/kg. However, its mass will remain the same regardless of its location in the universe.

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Two bumper cars collide into each other and each car jolts backwards this is an example of which of newtons laws?

### Answers

When two bumper cars collide into each other and each car jolts backwards, this is an example of: Newton's **Third Law** of Motion also known as the law of action and reaction.

Newton's Third Law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the case of the bumper cars, when they collide, the force exerted by Car A on Car B (the action) is equal in **magnitude **and opposite in direction to the force exerted by Car B on Car A (the reaction).

This is why both cars experience a jolt in **opposite **directions after the collision.

To recap, the situation you described with the two bumper cars colliding and jolting backwards is an example of Newton's Third Law of **Motion**, which states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

This law helps us understand the behavior of objects during **collisions **and interactions, and it plays a crucial role in understanding the principles of physics.

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A. 149 kg baseball moving at 17. 7 m/s is caught by a 57 kg catcher at rest on an ice skating rink,

wearing frictionless skates. With what speed does the catcher slide on the ice?

Do NOT put in units or it will be marked wrong! The answer's value only! Please round each

answer to 3 places.

Mava + MbVb = (Ma+b)(Va+b)

### Answers

The catcher slides on the ice at a speed of 3.09 m/s after catching the baseball. Friction occurs whenever two surfaces come into contact with each other and tends to resist their **relative motion.**

**What is Friction?**

Friction is the force that opposes motion or attempted motion between two surfaces in contact with each other. It is a fundamental force of nature that arises due to the interaction between the molecules of the two surfaces in contact.

Using the principle of conservation of **momentum:**

Initial momentum of the baseball = final momentum of the baseball and the catcher

Therefore, m1v1 = m1v1' + m2v2'

where,

Solving for v2', we get:

v2' = (m1v1 - m1v1') / m2

Substituting the values, we get:

v2' = (149 kg x 17.7 m/s) / (57 kg) = 46.25 m/s

Since the catcher was initially at rest, his **initial velocity **(v2) is zero.

Therefore, his change in velocity (v2') is equal to his final velocity (v2).

Thus, v2 = 46.25 m/s.

However, since the ice is frictionless, the catcher would continue sliding on the ice at this speed indefinitely. Therefore, the final answer is:

v2 = 3.09 m/s.

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Two charged spheres electron and proton are 10 cm apart attract each other.

The charge of the spheres are 9. 11 x 10-31 C and 1. 67 x 10-27 C. What force results

from each other? What will be the force if the separation is increased to 30 cm?

### Answers

Force when The seperation is 10 cm= **1.36 x 10^-45 N **and when it is 30 cm= **1.51 x 10^-46 N **

To answer your question, we will use Coulomb's Law to calculate the force between the charged spheres (electron and proton). Coulomb's Law states:

F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2

Where F is the **force**, k is the electrostatic constant (8.99 x 10^9 Nm^2/C^2), q1 and q2 are the **charges** of the spheres, and r is the distance between them.

Given the charges q1 = 9.11 x 10^-31 C (electron) and q2 = 1.67 x 10^-27 C (proton), and the initial distance r = 10 cm = 0.1 m, we can calculate the force:

F = (8.99 x 10^9 Nm^2/C^2) * (9.11 x 10^-31 C) * (1.67 x 10^-27 C) / (0.1 m)^2

F ≈ 1.35 x 10^-45 N

Now, let's calculate the force when the separation is **increased** to 30 cm = 0.3 m:

F_new = (8.99 x 10^9 Nm^2/C^2) * (9.11 x 10^-31 C) * (1.67 x 10^-27 C) / (0.3 m)^2

F_new ≈ 1.50 x 10^-46 N

So, the force between the charged spheres when they are 10 cm apart is approximately **1.35 x 10^-45** N, and when the separation is increased to 30 cm, the force becomes approximately **1.50 x 10^-46 **N.

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In a vacuum, electromagnetic radiation of short wavelengths.

### Answers

In a vacuum, **electromagnetic **radiation of short wavelengths refers to high-energy radiation. According to the electromagnetic spectrum, shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies and higher energies.

At the short wavelength end of the **spectrum**, you have gamma rays, which have the shortest wavelengths and highest energy among all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Gamma rays have wavelengths less than 10 picometers (pm) or frequencies greater than 10 exahertz (EHz).

**Gamma **rays are highly energetic and can penetrate matter deeply. They are often produced in nuclear reactions, radioactive decay, and high-energy particle interactions.

It's important to note that in a vacuum, all forms of electromagnetic radiation, including gamma rays, travel at the speed of light. The properties of electromagnetic radiation, such as wavelength and frequency, are intrinsic characteristics that remain constant regardless of the medium through which they propagate.

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Hunter pushed a couch across the room. He did 800 J of work in 20 seconds.

The couch weighed 500 N. How much power did he have?

A. 40 W

B. 1. 6 W

C. 16,000 W

D. 800 W

SUBMIT

### Answers

Hunter had a **power **of 40 watts when he pushed the couch across the room.

To solve this problem, we need to use the formula for power, which is P = W/t, where **P** is **power **measured in watts, **W **is work measured in **joules**, and **t **is time measured in **seconds**.

Given that Hunter did 800 J of work in 20 seconds, we can calculate his **power **as follows:

P = W/t

P = 800 J / 20 s

P = 40 W

Therefore, Hunter had a power of 40 watts when he pushed the couch across the room.

It's important to note that power is a measure of how quickly work is done. In this case, Hunter did 800 J of work in 20 seconds, which means he was doing work at a rate of 40 J/s (or 40 watts). His **power **would have been greater if he had done the same amount of work in less time. Conversely, his **power **would have been lower if he had taken longer to do the work.

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with the switch open, the potential difference across the capacitor in figure p23.44 is 10.0 v. after the switch is closed, how long will it take for the potential difference across the capacitor to decrease to 5.0 v?

### Answers

It will take approximately 5.54 ms for the **potential** difference across the capacitor to **decrease** from 10.0 V to 5.0 V after the switch is closed.

The time **constant** of the circuit can be calculated using the formula RC, where R is the resistance in the circuit and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. From the diagram, we can see that the **resistance** in the circuit is 4.00 kΩ and the capacitance of the capacitor is 2.00 μF. Therefore, the time constant of the circuit is:

RC = 4.00 kΩ × 2.00 μF = 8.00 ms

When the switch is closed, the **capacitor** will start to discharge through the resistor. The rate at which the potential difference across the capacitor decreases is given by:

V = V0 × e^(-t/RC)

Where V is the potential difference across the capacitor at time t, V0 is the initial potential difference across the capacitor (10.0 V in this case), and e is the base of the natural **logarithm**.

To find the time it takes for the potential difference across the capacitor to decrease to 5.0 V, we can rearrange the equation to:

t = -RC × ln(V/V0)

Substituting the values given, we get:

t = -8.00 ms × ln(5.0 V/10.0 V) = 5.54 ms

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An object in free fall has a velocity of 5 m/s in the upward direction. What is the instantaneous velocity of the object one second later?

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An object in free fall near the Earth's surface has an **acceleration **due to gravity of 9.8 m/s² downward. If the object has an initial velocity of 5 m/s upward, it will continue to move upward for a while before gravity pulls it back down.

One second later, the object will have been under the influence of gravity for one more second. During this time, its upward velocity will have decreased by 9.8 m/s² due to the **acceleration **of gravity, making it zero at the highest point of its trajectory.

As the object continues to fall, its downward **velocity **will increase by 9.8 m/s every second. Therefore, one second after starting with an initial velocity of 5 m/s upward, the object will have a velocity of 5 m/s downward.

In summary, assuming the object is in free fall near the surface of the Earth, its initial velocity of 5 m/s upward will be reversed by the acceleration due to **gravity**, resulting in a velocity of 5 m/s downward one second later.

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A mechanical system is used to pull a tarp over a grass tennis

court. On a clear, sunny day, the efficiency of the system is

55%. After a rainstorm, the efficiency is measured to be 65%.

Explain why there is a difference in the efficiencies.

### Answers

The difference in efficiencies of the **mechanical system **can be attributed to several factors such as increase in frictional force between the tarp and the system, an increase in tarp weight owing to water absorption, and an overall increase in resistance on the grass court due to wetness.

Firstly, the **frictional force** between the tarp and the mechanical system may have increased due to water on the tarp, leading to a decrease in efficiency.

Secondly, the weight of the tarp may have increased due to water **absorption**, leading to a greater load on the mechanical system, which in turn reduces efficiency.

Thirdly, the presence of water on the grass court may have increased the overall **resistance **to the movement of the tarp, leading to a decrease in efficiency.

These factors combined may explain the observed difference in efficiencies between the clear, sunny day and after a rainstorm.

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Two balloons are separated by a distance of 25. 5 cm. One balloon is charged with a charge of + 6. 25 nC = + 6. 25 x 10-9 C and the other balloon is charges with a charge of - 3. 5 nC = - 3. 5 x 10-9 C. Calculate the magnitude of Coulombic Force between them. Explain what kind of coulombic force will exist between them (attractive or repulsive)?

### Answers

The magnitude of **Coulombic force **between the two balloons is [tex]3.17 *10^{-4} N[/tex] and it is an attractive force as the two balloons have opposite charges (+ and - charges).

The Coulombic force between the two charged balloons can be calculated using **Coulomb's law:**

[tex]F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2[/tex]

where F is the force, k is the Coulomb** constant **[tex](9 * 10^9 N*m^2/C^2)[/tex], q1 and q2 are the charges of the two balloons, and r is the distance between them.

Substituting the given values, we get:

F =[tex]9 * 10^9 * [(+6.25 * 10^{-9}) * (-3.5 * 10^{-9})] / (0.255)^2[/tex]

F = [tex]-3.17 *10^{-4} N[/tex] (negative sign indicates an attractive force)

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Which of these is NOT considered an example of low EM energy?

A. infra-red

B. microwaves

C. ultra-violet

D. radio waves

### Answers

ultra-violet is NOT considered an example of low **Electromagnetic energy**. Hence option **C** is correct.

**Electromagnetic **waves, which are synchronised oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields, are the traditional form of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic spectrum is created at various wavelengths depending on the oscillation frequency. Electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light, typically abbreviated as c, in a vacuum. The oscillations of the two fields create a transverse wave in hom*ogeneous, isotropic media when they are perpendicular to each other, perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, and perpendicular to each other. Either an electromagnetic wave's oscillation frequency or its wavelength can be used to describe its location within the electromagnetic spectrum. Because they come from different sources and have different effects on matter, electromagnetic waves of different frequencies are known by various names. These are listed in decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency order: sound waves, lower **energy **have lower frequency.

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Why are relativistic calculations particularly important for electrons

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Relativistic calculations are particularly important for **electrons **because they move at very high speeds, which means they have a significant fraction of the speed of light.

At these speeds, the special theory of relativity developed by Einstein becomes relevant, and classical mechanics can no longer accurately describe the behavior of electrons.

Relativistic calculations take into account the effects of time dilation, length **contraction**, and mass-energy equivalence, which all play a role in the behavior of electrons at high speeds.

One consequence of relativistic effects on **electrons **is that their mass increases as they approach the speed of light, which changes their behavior in a number of ways.

For example, the increased mass means that it requires more energy to accelerate an electron to a high speed, and the increased mass also affects the electron's behavior in a magnetic field.

Relativistic calculations are therefore important in a variety of fields where electrons are important, such as particle **physics**, materials science, and chemistry.

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A diver makes 1.0 revolutions on the way from a 9.5-m-high platform to the water. assuming zero initial vertical velocity, find the diver's average angular velocity during a dive.

### Answers

The average** angular velocity** (ω) of the diver during the dive can be found using the formula:

1. ω = Δθ / Δt

where Δθ is the change in angle (in radians) and Δt is the time interval over which the change occurred.

In this case, the diver makes one complete revolution (i.e., a change in angle of 2π radians) during the dive, and we are not given the time interval directly.

However, we can use other information to find the time it takes for the diver to complete one revolution.

The diver falls from a height of 9.5 m, which means that the time it takes for the diver to hit the water can be found using the formula:

Δy = [tex]1/2 gt^2[/tex]

where Δy is the displacement (9.5 m), g is the acceleration due to gravity and t is the time interval. Solving for t, we get:

t = √(2Δy/g)

t = √(2 x 9.5 m / 9.8 m/s^2)

t = 1.43 seconds

Therefore, the time it takes for the diver to complete one revolution is **twice** this time (since the diver completes one revolution on the way down and another on the way up), or:

Δt = 2t = 2 x 1.43 s

Δt = 2.86 seconds

2. we can use this value to find the average angular velocity of the diver:

ω = Δθ / Δt

ω = 2π rad / 2.86 s

ω = 2.19 rad/s (rounded to two decimal places)

Therefore, the diver's average angular velocity during the dive was 2.19 rad/s.

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The force of __________ will be greater if one object has a larger mass than the other

### Answers

The force of **gravity** will be greater if one object has a larger mass than the other.

Gravity is the **force** of attraction between two objects with mass. According to Newton's law of gravitation, the force of gravity between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the **square** of the **distance** between them.

F = G * (m₁ * m₂) / d²

where:

F = force of gravity

G = gravitational constant (a universal constant)

m₁, m₂ = **masses** of the two objects

d = distance between the two objects

As we can see from the formula, the force of gravity is directly proportional to the masses of the two objects. Therefore, if one object has a larger mass than the other, the force of gravity between them will be greater.

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_______ assisted Anton Raphael Mengs with the iconography of his ceiling fresco, Parnasus, in the Villa Albani.

A) Johann Winckelmann

B) Cardinal Albani

C) Jacques Louis David

D) Joshua Reynolds

### Answers

**Answer:**

**Explanation:**

The correct answer is A) Johann Winckelmann. Johann Winckelmann, a German art historian and archaeologist, assisted Anton Raphael Mengs with the iconography of his ceiling fresco, Parnassus, in the Villa Albani

Anna mixes 200 g of hot coffee at 90 oC with 50 g of cold water at 3 oC to bring down the

temperature of the coffee. Explain what happens to the mixture using kinetic molecular model.

### Answers

Mixing hot coffee with cold water results in heat transfer from the coffee to the water through conduction until they reach thermal **equilibrium**. This process is explained by the kinetic molecular model and the laws of thermodynamics.

When Anna mixes hot coffee with cold water, the coffee loses heat to the surroundings and the water gains heat. The **kinetic **molecular model explains that heat is the energy that molecules possess and is transferred when there is a temperature difference between two objects.

In this case, the coffee molecules at a higher temperature have more kinetic energy than the water molecules at a lower **temperature**. As the coffee and water are mixed, the faster-moving coffee molecules collide with the slower-moving water molecules, transferring some of their kinetic energy to them.

This results in the coffee losing heat and the water gaining heat, until they reach thermal **equilibrium **at a new temperature between the initial temperatures of the two substances.

The process of mixing coffee with cold water is an example of heat transfer through conduction. The heat flows from the hot coffee to the cold water until the two substances reach a common temperature.

This process is governed by the laws of **thermodynamics**, which state that heat flows from hotter objects to cooler objects until thermal equilibrium is achieved.

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